Colloid & Surface Chemistry

History of the Division

By Robert L. Rowell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

The early history centered around the National Colloid Symposium since the first Symposium was held in 1923 at the University of Wisconsin, three years before establishment of the Division in 1926. No meetings were held in 1933 and during the war years 1943-45. Two papers summarize the first forty years (1, 2). These papers were reprinted in Vol. I (3) of the five-volume series of books that chronicled the 50th National Colloid Symposium that heralded the 50th anniversary of the Division in 1976 and was the first Symposium to bear the new name: International Conference on Colloids and Surfaces. Volume I covered the lead areas: Forces at Interfaces, Catalysis, Aerosols, Solid Surfaces, Water at Interfaces, Rheology of Disperse Systems, Stability and Instability, Membranes, Surface Thermodynamics and Liquid Crystals. Volumes II - V contained contributed papers on similar topics as well as Emulsions, Surfactants, Adsorption, Wetting, Surface Tension, Hydrosols, Biocolloids, Polymers, Monolayers and general papers thus defining the field at the opening of the current update which focuses on the period 1976-2001. An earlier report in the ACS Centennial volume (4) summarizes the history from another point of view.     

We first highlight the officers who have chaired the Division in the 25-year period, Table 1. It is their leadership that has overseen, directed and fostered the growth and development of the Division to meet the needs of the growth and development of the discipline during the period. 
    
One person must not fall through the cracks of history. Gabor A. Somorjai who chaired the Division in 1975 and introduced the idea of continuing symposia which set the tone of programming at the two annual ACS meetings and has persisted to this day. The current list of Continuing Symposia in Table 2 reflects the many research thrusts of our discipline. Comparison of the topics in Table 2 with the topics of the 50th Anniversary Meeting listed above reveals the changes and development of the field. 

The scientific contributions of our Division and discipline are best summarized in the publications of those who have been honored with awards. The oldest such award is the ACS Award in Colloid or Surface Chemistry, which was established in 1952 and supported until 1993 by The Kendall Company. Sponsorship was assumed by Procter & Gamble Company effective with the 1994 presentation. Since this history has not been summarized before, a complete list of awardees is given in Table 3.  We are fortunate to have two publications (5, 6) giving some of the Award addresses. 
    
In 1991 a new ACS Award was established: the Arthur W. Adamson Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Surface Chemistry sponsored by Occidental Petroleum Corporation. A nominee must have demonstrated extensive contributions to the advancement of surface chemistry.  Activities recognized by the award may include such fields as teaching, writing, research and administration. Award recipients are listed in Table 4. 

The Division has also recognized innovation and excellence in graduate research in colloid and surface chemistry. The oldest award, the Victor K. La Mer Award for an outstanding Ph.D. thesis accepted by a U.S. or Canadian university was first given in 1970. A complete list of awardees is given in Table 5. 
   
For a number of years, the Division administered a graduate fellowship in colloid and surface chemistry that was sponsored by Procter & Gamble Co. The fellowship award was made to the recipient's academic department to be used entirely to support the direct costs of the recipient's PhD research. A list of the awards is given in Table 6. 
   
In 1990 the Division established a new award with the support of the Henkel Corporation. The Henkel Corporation Research Fellowship in Colloid and Surface Chemistry consists of an award of $20,000 each year for 2 years, to be used entirely for the Fellow's stipend, scientific travel and other direct research costs during the final 2 years of doctoral thesis research at an accredited university within the United States. Award winners are listed in Table 7. 

In 1985, a new ACS journal was born, Langmuir, the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. The story of its birth (from a survey of some thousand academics, industrial and government scientists with the enthusiastic endorsement of the Executive Committee of the ACS Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry and carried out by following Society procedures) is related in some detail in the initial issue (7). 
   
Each year at the Fall meeting of the Society, the Division selects two well-known scientists, each to present a lecture having some common theme.  The one lecture emphasizes the "dry" or solid-vacuum or solid-gas interface, and the other, the "wet" or liquid interface, including disperse systems (7).  The early papers in the series were published in Langmuir. A list of the Langmuir Lecturers is given in Table 8. 
   
The history of the Division is also generated in active symposia in several secretariats, which meet jointly with other Divisions. A list of the current secretariats is given in Table 9. 
   
Finally, some perspective should be given to the overall technical programming of the Division. Above we have mentioned the Continuing Symposia, listed in Table 2, that are held at the Annual Spring and Fall ACS Meetings. But what has happened to the Colloid Symposium (now known as the Colloid and Surface Science Symposium) which was historically a single-session meeting devoted to a single topic surrounding the research area of one distinguished overseas guest plenary lecturer? The 1972 Symposium, the 46th, held at the University of Massachusetts was the last single-session meeting. By the time of the 50th meeting, which was also the 50th anniversary of the Division, parallel sessions were well established. At the recent 74th Colloid and Surface Science Symposium held at Lehigh, there were 8 parallel symposia in addition to general papers and a poster session. Needless to say, the task of organizing such a large and complex event is a special contribution, which must be recognized by listing the institutions and chairs who have carried on the traditions. This important update is included in Table 10. 
   
The breadth and depth of colloid and surface chemistry are highlighted in the attached tables. The achievements and contributions are too numerous and varied to be listed here but can be appreciated by reading the works of those cited in the tables and the references given as an introduction to the wide world of colloid and surface chemistry at the close of the twentieth century. 

REFERENCES 

1. "Remarks of J. H. Mathews at the Opening of the Fortieth National Colloid Symposium" J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1966, 22, 409-411. 
2. "Early History of the National Colloid Symposium", J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1966, 22, 412-418. 
3. "Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. I. Plenary and Invited Lectures", M. Kerker, A. C. Zettlemoyer and R. L. Rowell, Eds. Academic Press, N.Y. (1977). 
4. "A Century of Chemistry" Produced for the ACS Centennial in 1976. 
5. "Twenty Years of Colloid and Surface Chemistry - - The Kendall award Addresses", K. H. Mysels, C. M. Samour and J. H. Holister, Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1973). 
6. "Eighteen Years of Colloid and Surface Chemistry - - The Kendall Award Addresses", T. Fort and K. J. Mysels, Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington , D.C. (1991). 
7. "A Journal is Born" by A. Adamson and "Why Langmuir" by K. J. Mysels, Langmuir 1985, 1, 1-3.

Table 1. Division Chairs

1976   W. H. Wade 1998   J. Texter

1977   T. Fort, Jr. 1999  Barbara K. Warren  

1978   W. K. Hall 2000   Alice P. Gast

1979   J. P. Kratohvil 2001   Arthur T. Hubbard

1980   J. T. Yates, Jr. 2002   Darsh T. Wasan

1981   J. A. Mann 2003   Andrew J. Gellman

1982   G. L. Haller  2004   James A. Schwarz

1983   A.I. Medalia 2005   Maria Santore 

1984   R. R. Rye 2006   Eric W. Kaler 

1985   D.W. Goodman 2007   Francisco Zaera 

1986   R.L. Rowell 2008   Robert Tilton 

1987   A.T. Bell 2009   Deborah E. Leckband 

1988   R. Rajagopalen 2010    Wilfred T. Tysoe 

1989   J. L. Gland  2011   John Walz

1990   B.J. Kinzig  2012   Vicki Grassian

1991   E. L. Kugler 2013   William Ducker 

1992   D.W. Osborne 2014   Michael Trenary 

1993   C. T. Campbell 2015   Robert J. Hamers 

1994   R. A. Mackay 2016   Daniel Schwartz 

1995   J. B. Benzinger 2017   Howard Fairbrother 

1996   A. Morfesis 2018   Eric Borguet 

1997   N. E. Turner 

Table 2. Continuing Symposia

 

A. 
B. 
C. 
D. 
E. 
F. 
G. 
H. 
I. 
J. 
K. 
L. 
M. 
N. 
O. 
P. 
Q.

Molecular Processes at Solid Surfaces 
Catalysis 
Surfactants and Association Colloids 
Surface Chemistry in Biological and Medical Applications 
Colloidal Particles 
Electrochemical Surface Science 
Foams, Gels and Self-Assembled Films 
Tribology: Friction, Wear and Lubrication 
Colloid and Surface Chemistry of Advanced Materials 
Interfacial Chemistry and the Environment 
Colloids in Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals and Foods 
Polymer Interfaces 
Interfaces in Nanotechnology 
Computer Simulations in Surface and Colloid Chemistry 
New Techniques in Surface and Colloid Chemistry 
Protein Interfaces 
Nanoparticles and Porous Solids 

Table 3. ACS Award in Colloid or Surface Chemistry

Recipients sponsored by the Kendall Company

1954

Harry N. Holmes

 

1974

W. Keith Hall

1955

John W. Williams

 

1975

Robert Gomer

1956

Victor K. La Mer

 

1976

Robert J. Good

1957

Peter J.W. Debye

 

1977

Michael Boudart

1958

Paul H. Emmett

 

1978

Harold A. Scheraga

1959

Floyd E. Bartell

 

1979

Arthur W. Adamson

1960

John D. Ferry

 

1980

Howard Reiss

1961

Stephen Brunauer

 

1981

Gabor A. Somorjai

1962

George Schatchard

 

1982

Gert Erlich

1963

William A. Zisman

 

1983

Janos H. Fendler

1964

Karol J. Mysels

 

1984

Brian E. Conway

1965

George W. Halsey, Jr.

 

1985

Stig E. Friberg

1966

Robert S. Hansen

 

1986

Eli Ruckenstein

1967

Stanley G. Mason

 

1987

John T. Yates, Jr.

1968

Albert C. Zettlemoyer

 

1988

Howard Brenner

1969

Terrell L. Hill

 

1989

Arthur T. Hubbard

1970

Jerome Vinograd

 

1990

J. Michael White

1971

Milton Kerker

 

1991

W. Henry Weinberg

1972

Egon Matijevic

 

1992

David C. Whitten

1973

Robert L. Burwell, Jr.

 

1993

D. Wayne Goodman

 

Recipients sponsored by the Procter & Gamble Company

1994

J. Kerry Thomas

 

1999

Nicholas J. Turro

1995

Thomas Engel

 

2000

Darsh T. Wasan

1996

T. G. M. van de Ven

 

2001

Charles T. Campbell

1997

Harden M. McConnell

 

2002

 

1998

Eric W. Kaler

 

 

 

Table 4. Arthur W. Adamson Award for Distinguished Service in The Advancement of Surface Chemistry

Sponsored by Occidental Petroleum Corporation

1993

David M. Hercules

 

1998

Kenneth B. Eisenthal

1994

Gabor A. Somorjai

 

1999

John T. Yates, Jr.

1995

W. Henry Weinberg

 

2000

Alvin W. Czanderna

1996

Robert Gomer

 

2001

John M. White

1997

Robert W. Madix

 

2002

 

Table 5. Victor K. La Mer Award

For an outstanding Ph.D. thesis from a U.S. or Canadian University

1970

Charles W. Querfeld

Department of Physics

Clarkson College of Technology

1971

Edward McCafferty

Department of Chemistry

Lehigh University

1972

Donald E. Brooks

Department of Biochemistry

University of Oregon

1973

W. Henry Weinberg

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of California Berkeley

1974

Stephen L. Brenner

Department of Chemistry

Indiana University

1975

Michele Flicker

Department of Chemistry

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1976

Felix T. Hong

Department of Biophysics

Rockefeller University

1977

Hung Dah Shih

Department of Materials Science

SUNY, Stony Brook

1978

Frederick A Putnam

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1979

Eduardo D. Glandt

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Pennsylvania

1980

Wilson Ho

Department of Physics

University of Pennsylvania

1981

Michael Deeba

Department of Chemistry

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

1982

Mark A. Bartau

Department of Chemical Engineering

Stanford University

1983

David G. Weklie

Department of Materials Science

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

1984

Jeffry Harwell

Department of Petroleum Engineering

University of Texas, Austin

1985

Syed Qutubbuddin

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1986

Manoj K. Chaudhury

Department of Chemical Engineering

SUNY, Buffalo

1987

Peter S. Kirlin

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Delaware

1988

James P. Ebel

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1989

John M. Vohs

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Delaware

1990

Andrea K. Myers-Beaghton

Department of Chemical Engineering

Princeton University

1991

Antonios G. Mikos

Department of Chemical Engineering

Purdue University

1992

Andrew D. Johnson

Department of Chemistry

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1993

Robert D. Tilton

Department of Chemical Engineering

Stanford University

1994

Paul E. Laibinis

Department of Chemistry

Harvard University

1995

Vicki L. Colvin

Department of Chemistry

University of California Berkeley

1996

Frank M. Zimmerman

Department of Physics

Cornell University

1997

John Levins

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Pennsylvania

1998

Darrell Velegol

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1999

Younan Xia

Department of Chemistry

Harvard University

2000

Yunfeng Lu

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of New Mexico

2001

Garth J. Simpson

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

University of Colorado


 

Table 6. Procter & Gamble Graduate Fellowship in Colloid and Surface Chemistry

1980

Bruce E. Koel

Department of Chemistry

University of Texas, Austin

1981

Eric Stuve

Department of Chemical Engineering

Stanford University

1985

James P. Ebel

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1986

David M. Hrubowchak

Department of Chemistry

Pennsylvania State University

1987

Brial Moore

Department of Chemistry

UCLA

1988

Philip K. Vinson

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Minnesota

1989

Kurt W. Kolasinski

Department of Chemistry

Stanford University

1990

Mark W. Grinstaff

Department of Chemistry

University of Illinois

1991

Michael A Meyer

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Pennsylvania

1992

Carl L. Weisbecker

Table 7. Henkel Fellowships

1990

 

Maria Laso

University of California Berkeley

1991

 

John Levins

University of Pennsylvania

1992

 

Rick Maechling

Stanford University

1993

 

Brian Herr

Northwestern University

1994

 

Alan Esker

University of Wisconsin

1995

 

Ali Firouzi

University of California/Santa Barbara

1996

 

Christine Keating

Penn State University

1997

 

James Chamberlain

University of Arizona

1998

 

Michael Bevan

Carnegie-Mellon University

1999

 

Juanita Wickham

University of California Berkeley

Table 8. Langmuir Lecturers

1979

 

John Yates 

University of Pittsburgh

 

 

Janos Fendler

Clarkson University

1980

 

Michel Boudart

Stanford University

 

 

Milton Kerker 

Clarkson University

1981

 

Art Adamson

University of Southern California

 

 

Robert Madix

Stanford University

1982

 

Ernest Yeager

Case Western Reserve University

 

 

W. Keith Hall 

University of Pittsburgh

1983

 

Paul Becher

Paul Becher Associates

 

 

Paul Weisz

Mobil Research & Development, Princeton

1984

 

J.A. Mann

Case Western University

 

 

Mark Cardillo 

AT&T Bell Laboratories

1985

 

Egon Matijevic

Clarkson University

 

 

R.L. Burwell, Jr.

Northwestern University

1986

 

Gerhard Ertl 

Firitz-Haber Inst. de MPG, Berlin

 

 

Benjamin Widom

Cornell University

1987

 

D. Fennel Evans

University of Minnesota

 

 

K. Klier 

Lehigh University

1988

 

J. Lunsford

Texas A&M University

 

 

Ron Ottewill

University of Bristol

1989

 

George M. Whitesides

Harvard University

 

 

Sylvia T. Ceyer

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1990

 

George L. Gaines, Jr.

Rensselaer Polytech Institute

 

 

Gabor A. Somorjai

University of California, Berkeley

1991

 

Stig. Friberg

Clarkson University

 

 

D.Wayne Goodman

Texas A&M University

1992

 

Alexis T. Bell 

University of California, Berkeley

 

 

Dennis Chapman 

University of London

1993

 

Jacob N. Israelachvili 

University of California, Santa Barbara

 

 

J. Michael White

University of Texas

1994

 

Eli Ruckenstein 

SUNY, Buffalo

 

 

Benjamin Chu

SUNY, Stony Brook

1995

 

Alice P. Gast

Stanford University

 

 

Cynthia M. Friend

Harvard University

1996

 

Gerhard J. Fleer

Wageningen University

 

 

Graham J. Hutchings

University of Wales

1997

 

Matthew V. Tirrell 

University of Minnesota

 

 

William A. Goddard 

California Institute of Technology

1998

 

Bjorn Lindman

University of Lund

 

 

Srinivasan Manne

University of Arizona

1999

 

Hyuk Yu 

University of Wisconsin

 

 

Mark E. Davis 

California Institute of Technology

2000

 

Marie-Paul Pileni 

University Pierre et Marie Curie

 

 

Hermann Gaub

Ludwig-Maximilians University  Munich

2001

 

Malgorzota Borowko

Marie Curie Sklodowska University, Lublin

 

 

James A. Schwarz

Syracuse University

Table 9. Colloid and Surface Chemistry Secretariats

 

Macromolecular Secretariat

 

Catalysis and Surface Science Secretariat

 

Materials Secretariat

 

Biotechnology Secretariat 

Title 10. Chairs of the Colloid and Surface Science Symposium

1977

51

SUNY Buffalo (Grand Island)

Robert J. Good

1978

52

University of Tennessee/ORNL 

E. L. Fuller, Jr.,ORNL

1979

53

University of Missouri-Rolla

Stig E. Friberg

1980

54

Lehigh University 

Henry Leidheiser, Jr.

1981

55 

Case-Western Reserve University

J. Adin Mann, Jr.

1982

56

Virginia Tech 

James P.  Wightman

1983

57

University of Toronto 

A.  W. Neumann

1984

58

Carnegie-Mellon University

G. D. Parfitt

1985

59 

Clarkson University

E. Matijevic

1986

60

Georgia Tech 

M. J. Matteson

1987 

61

University of Michigan

Erdogan Gulari

1988 

62 

Penn State 

R. Nagarajan

1989

63 

University of Washington 

John C. Berg

1990

64

Lehigh University

Mohammed S. El-Aasser

1991

65

University of Oklahoma

John Scamehorn

1992

66

West Virginia University 

Duane H. Smith

 

 

 

Martin Ferer

1993 

67

University of Toronto

M. L. Hair

 

 

 

A. W. Neumann

1994

68 

Stanford University

Alice P. Gast

1995

69

University of Utah 

Joseph D. Andrade

 

 

 

Karin D. Caldwell

 

 

 

Terry A. Ring

1996

70 

Clarkson University

Stig E. Friberg

 1997 

71

University of Delaware 

Eric W. Kaler

 

 

 

Ralph D. Nelson, Jr.

1998

72

Penn State 

Ramanathan Nagarajan

 

 

 

W. A. Steele

 

 

 

R. Hogg

1999

73 

M.I.T.

Paul E. Labinis

 

 

 

T. Alan Hatton

2000

74

Lehigh University

Mohammed S. El-Aasser

 

 

 

Maria M. Santore

2001

75

Carnegie Mellon University

Robert D. Tilton

 

 

 

Stephen Garoff

2002

76

University of Michigan

Ramanathan Nagarajan